Other animals which exhibit the flehmen response include bison ,  tigers ,  tapirs ,  lions ,  giraffes ,  goats ,  llamas ,  kobs ,  hedgehogs ,  rhinoceros ,   giant pandas ,  , antelope  and hippopotami. Retrieved December 15, Breeding strategies, mate choice, and reproductive success in American bison ". The word originates from the German verb flehmen , to bare the upper teeth. The chemical cue obtained by an animal exhibiting the flehmen response is the presence of a non-volatile organic compound. Sources of non-VOCs relevant to the flehmen response include pheromones and hormones excreted from the genital regions or urine of animals. Archived from the original on June 7, Horses exhibit flehmen but do not have an incisive duct communication between the nasal and oral cavity because they do not breathe through their mouths; instead, the VNOs connect to the nasal passages by the nasopalatine duct.
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